With science and standard of living progressing, functional textile become more and more popular. We reported that a new bamboo pulp fiber fabric with the chitosan modification (CMBPFF) was prepared by the selective oxidation of sodium periodate and then treatment with a solution of chitosan aqueous acetic acid. The resulting CMBPFF is a nonpolluting and eco-friendly fabric product through the method of natural raw materials and no additives, which not only increase the added value of the product but also achieve natural ecological fabrics. This research using Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis showed that the maximum percentage of chitosan crosslinked on bamboo pulp fiber fabric was 10.52% (w/w). FT-IR spectra characterization suggested that the imine covalent bond between the chitosan and the oxidized bamboo pulp cellulose was formed through a series of reaction. The breaking strength of the modified fabric remained basically unchanged when the concentration of sodium periodate was less than 2.0 mg/ml. Furthermore, the chitosan modified bamboo pulp fiber fabric had the good antibacterial property. The wrinkle recovery angle and moisture regain of the chitosan modified fabric were improved. Meanwhile, a model experiment for the controlled release the drug was investigated using cactus extracts, a component of a Chinese medicine, indicated the extensive applicability of CMBPFF as a carrier for the controlled release drugs.