Rutting is a common and serious phenomenon in asphalt pavement especially in high temperature areas. Phase change material (PCM) can adjust temperature through storing and releasing thermal energy during phase change process and has been used in thermal energy storage areas and building materials. However, the use of PCM to regulate the temperature of asphalt pavement has not been widely studied. In this paper, the feasibility of temperature self-control asphalt pavement using PCM was studied for preventing rutting. The temperature-control mechanism of asphalt pavement with PCM has been presented. The selection criteria of PCM used in asphalt pavement have been made. Meanwhile, a paraffin/expanded graphite shape-stabled phase change material with a phase change temperature range of 40°C~50°C has been used in this study. The temperature rising test of asphalt concrete showed that sample with PCM exhibited a lower temperature than the control sample, which indicates that it is feasible to use PCM in asphalt pavement for lowering temperature and preventing rutting.