Risk Control in the Deep Excavations with the Application of the Observational Method
The uncertainty of the ground, in which a deep excavation to be conducted, is always inherent. The risk control of the excavation is therefore necessary. Based on the principle features of a deep excavation, a general process of risk control is presented in terms of design and construction, with the application of the observational method. To avoid the conflicts of the involved groups’ interests, a close co-operation between the groups in a well planned procedure is vital to the success of the risk control, especially to the case with rapid deterioration stages included.
Chaohe Chen, Yong Huang and Guangfan Li
J. Q. Ma "Risk Control in the Deep Excavations with the Application of the Observational Method", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 243-249, pp. 3403-3410, 2011