After heated to high temperature, the strength test of concrete cube specimens made by siliceous and calcareous coarse aggregates was carried out. We analyzed the influence of cooling methods and standing time on concrete compressive strength respectively. The test results show that the compressive strength is generally decreased with increase in temperature. The relative residual strength of calcareous aggregate concrete is higher than siliceous aggregate concrete at higher temperature, so siliceous aggregate concrete has more significant fire resistance than calcareous aggregate concrete. Between 200°C and 550°C, the cooling methods have a great influence on concrete strength. The minimum of concrete strength appears at the 28th day after elevated temperature for both calcareous aggregate concrete and siliceous aggregate concrete in air cooling condition, whereas the minimum appears at the first week in water cooling condition. In addition, concrete strength values become steady with the lapse of time after the fire.