Abstract: The curves of stress versus strain along spruce wood axial, radial and tangential directions are gained by static compression experiments. Moisture content and density of the spruce wood are 12.72% and 413 kg/m3 respectively. The results indicate that spruce compression process includes elastic, yield and compaction phases. Failure modes of spruce subjected to axial compression are fiber buckling and wrinkle. And failure modes under radial or tangential compression are wood fiber slippage and delamination. Axial compression yield strength is about nine times as that of radial and tangential compression. Radial and tangential compression yield strengths are almost equal. Energy absorption efficiency and ideality energy absorption efficiency of spruce along different loading directions are analyzed. And theory analytic solution to single wood cell buckling under axial compression is done. The obtained expression shows that the mean limit loading is relative to yield stress, cell structure dimension and wrinkle length for complete wrinkle cases.
Abstract: In this paper, tailings from Daye iron mine as aggregate, ordinary 425 # cement as cementing agent were adopted to make the filling samples in the test. Aimed at the three factors including cement-tailings ratio, curing age and slurry which influenced the strength of filling sample, single factor experiments were tested. Based on data analysis of the uniaxial compressive strength of 225 samples, it was shown that the compressive strength of filling samples was positively correlated with these three factors. According to the compressive strength of filling sample at 28d of age, the cement-tailings ratio of filling sample suitable for Daye Iron Mine was determined, which provided a theoretical basis for the choice of technical parameters of filling mining technology in Daye Iron Mine. Through the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) experiments for filling samples with different ages, the composition of chemical elements and resultant of the samples of different ages were analyzed, and reasons for the strength differences between the samples at different age was obtained, and a useful probe was conducted about the reaction mechanism.
Abstract: Dynamic compressive tests of plain concrete specimens (C30 and C40) are carried out on MTS, with the uniaxial strain rate ranging from 10-5/s to 10-2/s. The impacts of strain rates on concrete strength are studied systematically. The mechanical properties of compressive strength, elastic modulus and compressive stress-strain curve of concrete under different stain rates are also analyzed. The experiental relationships between strain rate and compressive strength of concrete are established. It is found that the compressive strength of concrete increases with the strain rate increasing. Modulus is also showing a growth trend, but the growth rate varies greatly; and the stress-strain curve under dynamic loads is similar to the one under static loads. These research achievements can provide us with a more accurate grasp of concrete actual working conditions and provide some guidance to structural design of concrete. These are important to build the dynamic damage constitutive models, too.
Abstract: Cement-limestone powder pastes added with 10% magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and calcium sulfate respectively were stored in water at (5±2) °C to accelerate thaumasite formation. The pastes were inspected visually at intervals. And the formation of thaumasite was identified and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results show that internal adding sulfate in cement-limestone powder paste is an efficient way to accelerate thaumasite formation, and the accelerated effect is magnesium sulfate> sodium sulfate> calcium sulfate. Cement-limestone paste containing 10% magnesium sulfate totally turns into grey-white mushy materials after 6 months immersion, and products are mainly thaumasite and gypsum. In addition, the amount of thaumasite increases along with time of internal sulfate attack in 15 months. XRD, IR, and NMR are powerful and reliable tools for identification of thaumasite in cement-based materials.
Abstract: Hollow glass fiber with full of repair agent is embedded in concrete to repair components, and one - third point loading experiment is carried out to test the mechanical properties of it. Based on the strength analysis of specimens before and after self – healing, the self – healing effect of concrete is evaluated. By simulating the closed heal agent flowing and penetrating into the concrete crack surface under the capillary tension, the influence of crack width to the healing effect is analyzed.
Abstract: This paper investigates mechanical characteristics of concrete exposed to external flexural load, de-icing salt and freeze-thaw cycles. Concrete specimens made with ordinary Portland cement or ordinary Portland cement incorporating fly ash with the replacement of 10% or 20%, or 0.7/10000 air-entraining agent and 20% fly ash, or ground blast furnace slag with the replacement of 15% or 30%, were made and exposed to flexural load, freeze-thaw and de-icing salt environment. Mechanical properties of concrete including compressive strength and flexural strength were measured. Phase composition of samples was determined by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD). Results indicate that increasing flexural stress ratios reduced compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete, and presented higher improvement of mineral admixtures in concrete strength. Incorporation of mineral admixtures and air-entraining agent decreased the loss of concrete strength. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of abundant calcium chloroaluminate and ettringite in paste samples.
Abstract: The effectiveness of fly ash in suppressing expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) of sandstone are studied respectively based on accelerated mortar bar test and concrete prism test. The mechanism of fly ash in inhibiting the ASR of sandstone is examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). Moreover, the reliability of fly ash in inhibiting ASR of sandstone was discussed through concrete strength and frost resistance tests. Results indicate that the replacement amount of fly ash is 20%, the expansion due to ASR can be decreased to the critical value of a non-reactive aggregate. The reason why fly ash can inhibit the alkali reactivity for the sandstone is that the strong reaction between alkali and fly ash dissipates the alkali, and the products of alkali-silica-aluminate gels are non-expansible. For the concrete specimens suffered from accelerated ASR tests, their strength and frost resistance are decreased with the increment of fly ash replacement.
Abstract: Simulating current sintering process in local brickkilns, Hengyang region, Hunan Province, China, at 800°C, througt indoor sintering experiment on a series of brick samples of purple sandy shale, in which particle sizes of limestone are >-1Φ, >0Φ, >1Φ, >2Φ, >3Φ and >4Φ, respectively, it is concluded that the following: (1) Limestone granularity is a crucial factor affecting the quality of sintering bricks of purple sandy shale. Under different particle sizes, the critical content of limestone causing lime brust of sintering bricks is distinct, and lowers with the increasing in limestone granularity. (2) When limestone granularity is different, its impact way on the quality of sintering bricks is also distinct. The more coarse limestone granularity is, the more concentrative the swelling stress produced by the hydration of free CaO is, the more easily lime brust occurs. On the contrary, the more fine limestone granularity is, the more dispersive the swelling stress is, there is the more help to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of lime brust. (3) In view of the relationship between limestone granularity and the critical content of limestone giving rise to lime brust of sintering bricks, the production practice can be effectively guided.
Abstract: The fracture process of concrete structures is a very complex process, which includes the crack initiation, cracking, expansion and unstable failure. Based on the analysis of existing fracture criterion theories and some experimental data, this paper proposed the strain-energy criterion of I so- line for mixed mode crack in concrete. This formula is easy to be deduced, clear in physical concept; besides, it predicts the crack initiation angle θ0 and determines propagation of the crack. The guidelines of the theoretical predictions are consistent with the measured results, which show that the guidelines can be applied to analysis crack problems of concrete I-II mixed mode fracture.