Abstract: A phenolic resin prepolymer has been prepared first with the balance performance of bonding strength, especially the water-resistant strength, and flowability for modification. Then soy protein gel is blended with the phenolic rein prepolymer, effects of some factors, such as mixed mode, mixing temperature, mixing system PH, mixing ratio, on the bonding strength are investigated. Results show that the dry strength of the Catalpa wood Sample can reach to 7.6 MPa, while water-resistant strength can reach to 1.3 MPa.
Abstract: Vertical Well-bore Section Anti-collision is one of the main problems to be resolved for clustering directional well during the construction process. In order to effectively reduce the Vertical Well Section collision risk of this wells, the relationship between Wellbore cross-collision probability and the Wellbore separation was studied, the relationship between Wellbore cross-collision probability and the parallel Section length of the two Wellbore was also studied, Based on the above study found the method to calculate the Vertical Wellbore Section cross-collision probability of the clustering directional well. The Vertical Well-bore Section arrangement with smallest cross-collision probability was found by analyzing the cross-collision probability in line style wellhead of cluster wells consisting of 4 wells through this method. The results show that when the Well-bore separation is less than 1.5m. Wellbore collision probability rapidly decrease with the increase of Well-bore separation, the wellbore collision probability trends to smooth when wellbore separation is more than this distance, and the tendency will increase with the increase of parallel section length of the two Wellbore. By optimizing the arrangement and design methods can effectively reduce the collision risk. This study provides a new idea to reduce the overall risk of Cluster Well development.
Abstract: In order to ensure better conservation and to increase the nutritive value of barley straw, the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase addition were studied. Two cellulases were Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Meiji cellulase (MC). Both cellulase and LAB addition decreased the pH values (P < 0.05) and increased lactic acid content when compared with the control, and their combination had further benefits over them alone. The efficiencies of improving fermentation quality were AC + LAB > MC + LAB > AC > MC > LAB. Cellulase addition significantly reduced ADF and crude fiber contents, and increased NFE content compared to the control (P < 0.05). The TDN contents of barley straw silages treated with AC, AC+LAB, MC and MC+LAB were increased by 11.9%, 15.5%, 7.0% and 10.8%, respectively.
Abstract: Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus) is one of the most important commercial fish in the world. Pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) was isolated from squid skin and biochemical properties of PSC were studied. The yields of skin PSC was about 18.5 % (on the dry weight basis). SDS-PAGE patterns showed that the collagen consisted of at least two different polypeptides (α1 and α2 chains). The peptide maps of PSC digested by pepsin were distinct from those of carp skin collagen. Denaturation temperatures, measured by melting point using circular dichroism, was 26.5 °C.The results suggest that squid skin collagen has potential as a possible underutilized resource used in various fields.
Abstract: Turpentine-based dipentene (TBDP) contains limonene 30.32 %, terpinolene 31.35 %, α-terpinene 7.55 %, γ-terpinene 6.40 % and p-cymene 12.87 %. Three Pd/C catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, TG-DTG and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The properties of the catalysts on TBDP conversion were compared. Difference of catalytic competitive reactions of TBDP by catalyst A with the change of reaction temperature was discussed in detail. The yield of p-cymene at 280-310°C was over 95.0 %. It was important to control the reaction temperature for TBDP dehydrogenation catalyzed by Pd/C catalysts. It is valuable to probe the catalytic behaviors of Pd/C catalyst on TBDP dehydrogenation for research and development of efficient preparation technology of p-cymene from TBDP.
Abstract: The effects of α-amylase and glucose oxidase as bread improvers on the textural properties of bread were evaluated by texture profile analysis and Scanning electron micrograph. It was found that α-amylase and glucose oxidase could retard the bread aging. And Scanning electron microscopy showed that wheat bread with the addition of the enzymes exhibited the microstructures with the smoother surfaces. Therefore, α-amylase and glucose oxidase could be considered as the potential texture modifier for baked food.
Abstract: The ultrasonic assistance extraction technology of the prickly ash oil from prickly ash seeds was studied, and the effects of extraction medium, temperature, time and rate of liquid to solid was discussed. Meanwhile, chemical compositions of prickly ash oil extarcted from its seeds and shell were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The results showed that the extraction rate of prickly ash oil is 7.8% by using 95% ethanol as extractant with a ratio ethanol/ash (v/w) of 3:1 (mL/g) and extracting at 60 °C for 90 min. Heat treatment of prickly ash, however, led to a lower rate under the corresponding conditions. The chemical compositions of both oils are very different with alkenes from seeds and with carboxylic acids together with its esters from shell.
Abstract: The pyrolysis characteristics of the cooking oil tar in an ambient air were investigated using a thermogravimetric apparatus with infrared-spectrum analyzer. Experimental results showed that the combustion process of cooking oil tar can be divided into five stages. The first step of mass loss is due to water evaporation. The second stage is the volatilization and combustion of the low boiling point compound，the third stage is the combustion of instauration hydrocarbon，the fourth stage is the combustion of ester and the last stage is the combustion of saturation hydrocarbon. A simple kinetic description, named in this work as ‘First Order Reaction and Three-dimensional Diffusion Separate-stage Model (O1+D3)’ model, was developed based on the experimental results and integral analysis method.
Abstract: This paper was aimed to study the aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE) on water soluble bio oil(SBO), in which ethanol, K2HPO4, NaH2PO4 and (NH4)2SO4 were selected to form the water soluble bio oil(SBO) aqueous two phase system (ATPS). After phase separation, the extraction rates and the volume ratios of the upper to lower layer of the ATPSs were investigeted. Both the upper and lower layers of these SBO ATPSs were analyzed by elemental analyzer and Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The different extraction rates indicates the influnces of different salt during the phase saperation, of which NaH2PO4 has less effect to SBO than the other two; K2HPO4 may neutralize some organic acid; the lowest extraction rate of ethanol/(NH4)2SO4 system indicates the effects of (NH4)2SO4 to SBO. Too much ethanol will fech in more water, hence the optimizational ratio of the SBO ATPS should be SBO:salt:ethanol=10:10:5. In element analysis, the diclining of oxygen in all the upper layers and the increasing of nitrogion in both layers of (NH4)2SO4 system indicates the abbility of the less oxygen components concentration of the ATPS and the reaction between (NH4)2SO4 and SBO. According to FTIR test, the lack of absorption at 1515cm-1 of all the lower layers indicates the completely transforming of phenols into the upper layers. Because of the high extraction rate and less influence to SBO, ethanol/NaH2PO4 system may be the most suitable ATPS for SBO extraction.