Effect of environment factors such as initial pH value, dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature on phosphorus removal efficiency of phosphate reduction system was discussed in treating pickled mustard tube wastewater. Results indicate that environment factors have significant influence on dephosphorization efficiency. And, the impact of DO on phosphate reduction is mainly by affecting the distribution of micro-environment inner biofilm, manifest as phosphate removal rate decreased with a fall in DO concentration, while overhigh DO can lead to detachment of biofilm, thus causing the increase of effluent COD concentration, and so DO need to be controlled in the range of 6 mg/L. Moreover, a higher temperature is more beneficial to phosphorus removal by PRB. Unfortunately, exorbitant temperature can result in mass rearing of Leuconostoc characterized with poor flocculability in reactor, and that cause turbidity in effluent appeared as a rise in COD of effluent. Hence, the optimal temperature is found to be about 30°C.