Influence of Pipe Roof Reinforcement on Face Stability of Underwater Tunnel
The effect of seepage force on tunnel face stability with pipe roof reinforcement was studied based on the kinematic method of limit analysis. This method can be employed to define the safety factor and its corresponding critical failure mechanism for a given tunnel. The studies revealed that the existence of groundwater may seriously affect the face stability. Under the steady-state groundwater flow condition, most part of the total support pressure is owing to the seepage pressure acting on the tunnel face. There was a relatively large reduction in the seepage pressure by adopting the pipe roof reinforcement technique.
K. Wang et al., "Influence of Pipe Roof Reinforcement on Face Stability of Underwater Tunnel", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 261-263, pp. 1029-1033, 2011