Numerical Study of Functionally Graded Materials
One-dimensional comprehensive mathematical model coupling particle movement and thermal conduction in the casting mould system is developed. A formula for pressure in liquid metal during the centrifuge process is derived. The model takes into consideration the propagation of solidification front and movement of particles due to centrifugal acceleration which takes place either in the same or in opposite direction to that of the solidification front depending on the relative density difference between the particles and melts. In the force balance expression, repulsive force term is incorporated for the particles that are at the vicinity of the solid/liquid interface to calculate the particle segregation pattern in the casting region The effects of various process parameters such as, rotational speed of the mold, size of the reinforcing material, relative density difference between the particle and melt, initial pouring temperature of the liquid melt, mold pre-heating temperature, heat transfer coefficient between the casting/mold interface are studied. It is noted that for a given set of operating conditions, the thickness of the particle rich region in the composite decreases with increase in rotational speed, particle size, relative density difference between the particle and melt, initial pouring temperature and initial mold temperature. With decrease in the heat transfer coefficient between the casting/mold interface, the solidification time increases which, in turn, results in more intense segregation of solid particulates. Again, with increase in the initial volume fraction of the solid particulates, both the solidification time as well as the final thickness of the particulate rich region increase.
Deliang Zhang, Kim Pickering, Brian Gabbitas, Peng Cao, Alan Langdon, Rob Torrens and Johan Verbeek
K.M. Naryanappa et al., "Numerical Study of Functionally Graded Materials", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 29-30, pp. 311-314, 2007