Ductile iron specimen with dimensions of Φ590mm×800mm were prepared by treating the melt with an yttrium-containing nodulizer. Cooling curves at four locations____the center location, the location 85mm distant from the center, the location 170mm distant from the center and the location 255mm distant from the center of the heavy ductile iron casting Φ590mm×800mm was obtained. The effect of yttrium and magnesium on microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated, and the factors on the distribution of chunky graphite in the specimen were discussed as well. The results show that the largest amount of chunky graphite and the lowest mechanical properties appear at the location 170mm distant from the center. Excessive yttrium and magnesium content at the location 170mm distant from the center is the main factor for the large amount of chunky graphite. The characteristics of the solidification mode____pasty solidification and the considerably long solidification of the casting are the basic reasons for the distribution of chunky graphite of the heavy ductile iron casting Φ590mm×800mm.