Simulation of the Effect of Process Parameters on Particle Velocity in Cold Spray Using Laval Nozzle with Nine Holes
Simulations of the supersonic flow field inside and outside of the Laval nozzle with single hole and nine holes were carried out based on the computational fluid dynamics method. The effects of different standoff distance and particle diameter on impact velocity of Cu particle spraying from single hole and nine holes were investigated firstly. The results show that the particle velocity obtained with the nine holes nozzle is higher than that of the single hole nozzle under the same standoff distance, and the smaller the standoff distance, the higher the particle velocity may be obtained with the nine holes, and the higher particle velocity may be obtained with smaller particle diameter for particles with diameters of 1 ~ 15 μm. Furthermore the effects of different spraying pressure and temperature on particle velocity of Cu particle spraying from the nine holes nozzle were also studied. And the simulations indicate that the higher the spraying pressure and temperature may make the particle spraying with greater velocity.
C. S. Liu et al., "Simulation of the Effect of Process Parameters on Particle Velocity in Cold Spray Using Laval Nozzle with Nine Holes", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 314-316, pp. 78-81, 2011