For the purpose of energy utilization and environmental protection, a solar thermoelectric air conditioning is designed which is different from traditional air conditioning. It has many advantages including environment friendly, refrigerating quickly and applying flexibly. Solar thermoelectric air conditioning utilizes thermoelectric effect of semiconductor materials to achieve the purpose of refrigerating and heating. The direct current which flows into semiconductor materials is provided by solar photovoltaic device. This paper demonstrates the main factors which influence thermoelectric air conditioning such as thermoelectric materials, air supply and heat transfer temperature difference, solar photoelectric devices and so on. In addition, comprehensive analysis of the refrigeration coefficientis obtained. Finally, the paper puts forward measures for improving the efficiency of thermoelectric air conditioning so as to study in the future.