In this study, the composition and distribution of dominant soil filamentous microbes , such as fungi and actinomycetes, at dry lake wetland soil on typical steppe were measured through Spread-Plate-Technique; the divergent characteristics of two microbial floras at lake wetland and typical steppe were analyzed; and several indicators of soil filamentous microbes, for example, diversity, richness, evenness, and dominance, were calculated. For fungi, there is significant difference between lake center (LC), typical steppe (TS) & lake bed (LB), lake side (LS) for diversity and richness; and there is significant difference between LC and TS& LB and LS for dominance. For actinomycetes, there is significant difference between LC & LS, and LB& TS for diversity; and there is significant difference between LC&TS for richness; and there is significant difference between LC&LS for evenness. At LC, the most dominant floras is Mucor, accounting for 100%. At LB, Mucor accounts for 26.25% and Penicillium accounts for 45%. At LS, the dominant floras are Mucor, accounting for 48%, and Penicillium, accounting for 34.48%. At TS, Penicillium has become the dominant flora to account for 92.23%. For actinomycetes, the most dominant floras at LC is Griseofuscus, accounting for 55.71%. At LS, the dominant floras are Griseofuscus accounting for18.75%, and balding group, accounting for 20%. At TS, the dominant flora are Griseofuscus, accounting for16.08%, and Flav us, accounting for 14.69%.The results have demonstrated a better understanding toward the development and succession mechanisms of wetland to provide the basis for protection and rational utilizations of dry lake wetland.