Progress in Environmental Science and Engineering

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Authors: Li Hua Lv, Jing Cheng Ren, Tian Hu Sun, Jian Qing Dai
Abstract: we take mining water from Liang Zou group undergroud 200 m. and cltured in 9K medium, sodium thiosulfate medium, sulfur (S0) medium. According to its conformation on the different mediums, we get ferrooxidans(T.f), and studying its ecological nature shows that the ferrooxidanis is acidophilic autotrophic bacteria and has ferrous iron and sulfur oxidation. Its optimum growth pH value is 2.0, optimum growth temperature is 30°C, 1.0 g/L of Fe2 + and 1 % S0 which can be used as the energy source are propitious to its growth. After UV mutagenesis, the strain which has been cold treated improve Fe2+ oxidation ability, at the same time, shorten the time enter to the logarithmic growth phase, the density of bacteria in lag growth phase increases from 6.8×107 cells/mL to 7.8×107 cells/mL, so increase bio-leaching capability.
Authors: Jian Ming Li, Jing Gui Wu
Abstract: Elemental Analyzers and Infrared Spectrometer was used to study the effects of the different organic materials on the structure and elemental composition of humus in black soil. The results showed as follow: Compared with control treatment (CK), application of organic materials decreased aliphatic compounds of humic acid(HA) and fulvic acid(FA), and the role of plant residues was the most obvious. In humin linked to clay (HMc), all the organic materials could increased aliphatic compounds, at the same time, decreased content of aryl-groups C=C. After five years, used of organic materials decreased content of hydroxyl and saccharide in humin linked to iron(HMi), but increased aliphatic compounds. Compared with CK, after five years, application of organic materials resulted in significant decrease of C and H content, and the role of herb residues was the most obvious. Apart from animal excrement, others organic materials significantly increased N content of HA, and there was significant differences among different treatments. Application of herb residues increased N of FA. The order of C content was: animal remnant>animal excrement>CK>woody residues>herb residues, and no significant differences were observed for this parameter among different treatments. Use of organic materials resulted in significant decrease of C and H, but enhanced O content of HMi , and the role of herb residues was the most obvious, at the same time, herb residues decreased N of HMi. After application of animal excrement and woody residues,the C and N content of HMc were enhanced, and H content of HMc was decreased. Compared with CK, application of organic materials resulted in significant decrease of H content of HMc, and there was significant differences among different treatments.
Authors: Shun Hui Yu, Li Ping He, Jun Sheng Qi
Abstract: Qianjiangping landslide, which occurred in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, is one of the serious landslide disasters in this area after impounding. Based on site investigation, and investigation of the related reference materials and analyzing the origin caused this disaster we think the special geological and geomorphic conditions and concentrated rainfall are the main factors. Some suggestions on engineering treatment technology, the measures of nature restoring vegetation and ecology restoring vegetation, which are useful to the landslide treatment of analogous project, are put forward---That is, for happened landslide and potential dangerous areas it is necessary to do hill’s drainage and slope protection; the method for natural restoration vegetation is to close the mountains for natural afforestation to reduce the human interference; and the way for ecological restoration vegetation is to restore and rehabilitate Eco-economic vegetation.
Authors: Cong Yun Shi, Xing Zhong Liu, Da Xiao Xu, Zhi Gang Zhan
Abstract: Subscript textIn order to clarify the reaction mechanisms of the singlet monochlorocarbene radical (1 CHCl) with 3O2 on the singlet potential energy surface (PES), a detailed theoretical study was carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. It is found that the first step is the formation of the planar adducts HClCOO via a barrierless association in the 1 CHCl +3 O2 reaction, and then some isomerizations and breakages of bonds takSuperscript texte place, producing P1 (HCO + ClO), P2 (CO2 + HCl) and P3 (CO + HOCl). The product channel of P2 (CO2 + HCl) is the most competitive one both kinetically and thermodynamically. P1 (HCO + ClO) is the least favorable.
Authors: Jin You Shen, Chao Zhang, Xiu Yun Sun, Jian Sheng Li, Lian Jun Wang
Abstract: Recalcitrant and toxic organic pollutants such as aniline from numerous industrial wastewaters can not be efficiently removed using the conventional methods. This study reported a concept for mineralization of aniline in an anoxic reactor, where enhanced biodegradation of aniline were achieved under anoxic conditions. The results indicated that with the presence of nitrate, the degradation rate of aniline was greatly improved compared with the absence of nitrate. From the UV-vis adsorption spectra, COD analysis and denitrification performance analysis, it could be inferred that the cleavage of benzene ring of aniline occurred, aniline could be mineralization by microorganisms under the anoxic condition. However, aniline removal rate was lower compared to aerobic degradation process, and thus needs a significant improvement.
Authors: Cong Yun Shi, Jiao Zhang, Xing Zhong Liu
Abstract: A detailed theoretical study was done in order to clarify the reaction mechanisms of the singlet dibromocarbene (1CBr2) with 3O2 on the singlet potential energy surface (PES). All the geometries of reactants, intermediates, transition states and products were obtained at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations at the same level were carried out to confirm the connections between transition states and intermediates. It is found that the initial adduct Br2COO (Cs) is formed via a barrierless association in the 1CBr2 + 3O2 reaction, and then some isomerizations and breakages of bonds take place, generating P1 (BrCO + BrO), P2 (CO + Br2O), P3 (CO2 + Br2) and P4 (CO2 + 2Br). P3 (CO2 + Br2) is the most competitive channel kinetically and thermodynamically. P4 (CO2 + 2Br) is the least favorable one kinetically.
Authors: Yang Wu, Dong Hui Chen, Man Hong Huang
Abstract: This study was to investigate sorption behavior of selected antibiotics in soils. The pH effect on sorption was also studied. Results showed organic matter was an important factor in the sorption of sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine to soil, while trimethoprim could be easily sorbed on different types of soils, and displayed a higher sorption potential than sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine. The extent of sulfamethoxazole sorption on selected soils was highest at low pH and decreased with increasing pH. An increase in pH was found to have no significant affect on the sorption of sulfapyradine, while sorption was found to have increased initially and decreased beyond a certain pH value for trimethoprim.
Authors: Hong Fei Yang, Jie Zhang, Jian Long Li
Abstract: The effects of Zn on chlorophyll content and scavenging system of activated oxygen in leaves of rape were evaluated by cultivation experiments. The results showed that external symptoms, physiological and biochemical index and SOD activity were impacted by Zn treatments. The activity of SOD and contents of chlorophyll increased firstly in lower concentration of Zn (200 mg·kg-1), while the velocity of O2•- production and the cell membrane permeability had no marked change, and the balance of proSubscript texttective enzyme system was hold. Those may be regarded as a protecting function of plants. However, with the increase of concentration of Zn, negative effect had existed, the fronds were shorter and smaller, content of leaf pigments and the activity of SOD decreased drastically. The sensibility order of pigments to Zn stress was similarly Chlorophyll a> Chlorophyll a+b >Chlorophyll b. The velocity of O2•- production was increased sharply, the membrane penetration and electric conductivity were increased. Furthermore, the activate oxygen metabolism system of rape (Brassica Chinensis L) was destroyed. The results indicated that Zn stress affected scavenging system of activate oxygen and resulted in the balance of protective enzyme system was broken. The results also suggested that the tolerance limit of rape (Brassica Chinensis L) to zinc was 1000 mg·kg-1.
Authors: Zi Jun Xiao, Fang Fang Huo, Rui Qian Qi, Yun Ling Huang
Abstract: Abnormally discharged phenols work as toxic pollutants to living environments. In this work, the operation conditions of a newly isolated 2,3-dimethylphenol-degrading Pseudomonas strain including temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH were investigated. Mixed phenols could be degraded efficiently in diluted mineral-salts medium, avoiding excessive ammonia and phosphate pollution. The results illustrated the potential of bacterial remediation of phenolic pollutants without eutrophication caused by the addition of bacterial growth nutrients.

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