The Research on Shallow Tunnels Construction Technology
By using the numerical analysis method as the test means, this paper simulated and studied the main factors of ground loss which was caused by the full face excavation of shallow tunnels. The results of the numerical experimentation make clear that: in the same conditions, the inverted arch reinforcement is more effective than the vault reinforcement, the advanced reinforcement of inverted arch is more effective than Radial reinforcement of that, and the vault reinforcement doesn’t work or the effect isn’t obvious.
Qing Yang, Li Hua Zhu, Jing Jing He, Zeng Feng Yan and Rui Ren
F. W. Pan "The Research on Shallow Tunnels Construction Technology", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 368-373, pp. 2945-2948, 2012