The mechanical analysis is applied for the steel box girder bridge with orthotropic plate and pavement by means of Finite Element Method. The interaction between steel bridge and pavement on the long-span steel bridge is evaluated in three calculation stages. The emphasis of the analysis includes the mechanical characteristics and the influential factors of large components(cross diaphragm)and local components (U-shaped ribs). Considering the mechanical changes by the load of heavy-duty vehicles and heavy load with braking, the interfacial shear failure is studied for the main form of damage. In view of this major form of damage, this paper puts forward the corresponding mechanical analysis of the indicators.