At the closed-loop calibration research of anti-aircraft weapons systems, the miss distance between target and projectiles is difficult to obtain accurately. In order to solve this problem, this paper provided using the digital image processing technology to research the miss distance measurement methods, focusing on the image filtering technology, edge detection technology and target recognition technology. According to the simulation results, the paper selected the adaptive median filtering to remove image noise, adopted the edge detection method based on the iterative threshold to obtain target edge and used template matching technology to identify the target in the image. Finally, according to the principle of image measurement technique, using centroid tracking measurement technology to achieve the miss distance measurement. The application of digital image processing technology makes the miss distance measurement become simple, effective and convenient. This measurement method enables to save money, improve accuracy, get results in real time and have a high research value.