A novel flame retardant polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) was successfully obtained via combination of non-hydrolytic and hydrolytic sol-gel routes. Chemical structure of the resultant PMSQ was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. All the measurements demonstrated that the product possessed regular structure with chain-to-chain width of 0.87nm and chain thickness of 0.40nm. Weight average molecular weight of PMSQ was measured to be 3.5×105 using gel permeation chromatography. Numerical simulations of the molecular structure suggested that PMSQ should exhibit cis-isotactic configuration and double helical conformation at undisturbed condition.