Vascularized Multi-Functional Materials and Structures
Here we draw attention to the development of smart materials with embedded vasculatures that provide multiple functionality: volumetric cooling, self-healing, mechanical strength, etc. Vascularization is achieved by using tree-shaped (dendritic) and grid-shaped flow architectures. As length scales become smaller, dendritic vascularization provides dramatically superior volumetric bathing and transport properties than the use of bundles of parallel microchannels. Embedded grids of channels provide substantially better volumetric bathing when the channels have multiple diameters that are selected optimally and put in the right places. Two novel dendritic architectures are proposed: trees matched canopy to canopy, and trees that alternate with upside down trees. Both have optimized length scales and layouts. Flow architectures are derived from principle, in accordance with constructal theory, not by mimicking nature.
Alan K.T. Lau, J. Lu, Vijay K. Varadan, F.K. Chang, J.P. Tu and P.M. Lam
A. Bejan and S. Lorente, "Vascularized Multi-Functional Materials and Structures", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 47-50, pp. 511-514, 2008