A corundum-type structure of cobalt niobate (Co4Nb2O9) has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The formation of the Co4Nb2O9 phase in the calcined powders was investigated as a function of calcination conditions by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Morphology and particle size have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the minor phases of unreacted Co3O4 tend to form together with the columbite CoNb2O6 phase at a low calcination temperature and short dwell time. It seems that the single-phase of Co4Nb2O9 in a corundum phase can be obtained successfully at the calcination conditions of 900°C for 60 min, with heating/cooling rates of 20°C /min.