Imidazoline derivative inhibitors are successfully used in oil-gas field for CO2 and H2S corrosion. The inhibition performance and inhibition mechanism of imidazoline with thioureido to prevent corrosion of steel in saltwater saturated with CO2 were studied by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the meantime, quantum chemical analysis was used to analysis the results. The results of electrochemical measurements indicated that the inhibitor belonged to mixed-type inhibitor which mainly inhibited anodic process and worked as “negative catalysis”. The inhibition efficiencies increased then decreased with the increase in inhibitor concentration. The electrochemical results have also been supplemented by quantum chemical analysis. It was found that the chemical adsorption of the imidazoline with thioureido molecule on Q235 steel depended on the imidazoline ring and thioureido, thus the inhibitor had good corrosion inhibition.