Carbon foam with relatively high compressive strength and high porosity was prepared from a mixture of mesophase pitch and Si particles by foaming and carbonization. The influence of Si content on the microstructures and properties of the carbon foam was studied. Results show that the pore number decreases and the strut thickness increases with an increasing of Si content. In addition, bulk density also increases with increasing Si content but the porosity decreases. Si addition to the mesophase pitch reduces the number of microcracks on the cell wall of the carbon foam remarkably which results in an increase of compressive strength for the carbon foams. Compressive strengths improve by 46%, 176% and 339% at Si additions of 30%, 40% and 50% (wt %), respectively. Carbon foam with a relatively high compressive strength of 24.6 MPa and a porosity of 61% are obtained when 50 wt% Si is added.