Air gap membrane distillation experiments of different temperature and mass flow rate of working fluid were done for the use of solar power and setting up the mathematical model of AGMD’ heat and mass transfer. The calculation correctness of mathematical model was discussed and the thermal efficiency of membrane distillation system was calculated. The results showed that the experimental flux of membrane distillation reached 49kg/m2•h and the biggest relative error is less than 9% between results of experiment and mathematical model calculation. The mathematical model can be used to forecast the process parameters of membrane distillation. The highest thermal efficiency of this system is 68% and the main influencing factors of thermal efficiency are temperature and mass flow rate of working fluid.