A model based on damaged mechanics is presented to analyze the failure behaviour of coke dry quenching refractory lining under circumstance of multifarious change of temperature by using finite element method. The refractory material behavior can be described by Drucker-Prager Plasticity model for compression and strain softening under tension. The simulation result is consistent with the experiment result. This paper provides a new method for the failure analysis of refractory material. The results can be used to optimize the lining design and the material selection.