Adsorption and Incorporation of Cadmium into a Calcium Hydroxyapatite
The removal of cadmium from water by fixation into a calcium phosphate apatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (CaHA) was investigated in batch experiments. These ones were carried out using a wide range of initial Cd2+ concentration, three different temperatures, and several CaHA surface areas. The amount of immobilized cadmium was proportional to the surface area of CaHA, whatever the experimental parameters might be. It could reach 7.1 mol of Cd per mol of starting CaHA. Thermal and XPS analyses on the exchanged powders proved that a part of cadmium was quickly adsorbed at the grains surface in the form of hydrated complexes [Cd(OH2)n]2+. The latter were formed by an ionic exchange between adsorbed calcium and cadmium of the solution. Adsorption reaction was mainly limited by the number of specific sites available on the grains surface. Structural analyses showed that another part of Cd was slowly incorporated into a solid solution Ca10-xCdx(PO4)6(OH)2 (CaCdHA) onto the CaHA crystals surface. Results demonstrated unambiguously that the incorporation process was a surface precipitation and not an intracrystalline diffusion.
D. Marchat et al., "Adsorption and Incorporation of Cadmium into a Calcium Hydroxyapatite", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 45, pp. 2055-2060, 2006