Structure of Historical Brass Tongues and Shallots from Baroque Organs
The composition and microstructure of historic tongues and shallots from reed pipes of various Baroque organs has been studied. They contain Cu-Zn solid solution (α-brass with 23-29 wt. % Zn) and lead particles. Lead is mainly present as spherical bulk or lens-like grain boundary (GB) inclusions. However, in two samples Pb wets the brass GBs. In this case Pb forms the branched root-like structures. Grain size in brass scatters from 10 to 200 µm. Around 50% of all GBs in brass are Σ=3 twin GBs. The high-indexed coincidence site lattice facets were observed in twin GBs. The increase of number of various facets roughly correlates with decreasing grain size. It may indicate the variation in annealing temperature used by organbuilders in Baroque Era. The annealing temperature has been estimated using the faceting phase diagram for twin GBs in Cu.
B.S. Bokstein and B.B. Straumal
B. Baretzky et al., "Structure of Historical Brass Tongues and Shallots from Baroque Organs", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vol. 249, pp. 275-280, 2006