On the Features of Ultramicroelectrodes
Ultramicroelectrodes offer several unique characteristics which enable new types of electrochemical measurements. These include: 1) small size; 2) minimisation of iR effects; 3) rapid response; and 4) steady-state response at moderate times. These features enable experiments as diverse as in vivo electrochemistry, electrochemistry in pharmacology, nanoelectrochemistry, electrochemistry in solvents such as benzene, microsecond electrochemistry, and flow-rate independent electrochemistry. Thus, it is apparent that the use of ultramicroelectrodes has become a rapidly growing area of interest. In this paper, the attributes of ultramicroelectrodes, its construction, the equations of diffusion, and key applications of electrochemistry at ultramicroelectrodes, are analysed.
Andreas Öchsner and Graeme E. Murch
D. M.F. Santos et al., "On the Features of Ultramicroelectrodes", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 273-276, pp. 602-607, 2008