The Electrolytic Actuator-An Effect Dominated by Dissipative Currents
For a conductive, elastic matter in thermodynamic equilibrium the LORENTZ force, which includes the COULOMB force for charged systems, is the only macroscopic interaction between the electromagnetic field and the matter. If irreversible currents such as diffusion and ionic currents are observed, these currents and their coupling can dominate the behaviour. Then, to describe that system it is necessary to start with a macroscopic description, which remains valid outside of the equilibrium. A macroscopic description of these currents is used to deduce a very simple model for an electrolytic actuator.
A. Agüero, J.M. Albella, M.P. Hierro, J. Phillibert and F.J. Pérez Trujillo
H. Temmen and P. Caracciolo, "The Electrolytic Actuator-An Effect Dominated by Dissipative Currents ", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 289-292, pp. 311-317, 2009