Nanotechnology focuses on special properties of a material which emerge from nanometer size—is becoming one of the most promising scientific fields of research in decades. The realisation that the nano-scale has certain properties needed to solve important biomedical challenges and cater to unmet biomedical needs is driving nano-biosystem research. Proper nutrition and a clean environment promote human health. Nanotechnologies are only used to a limited extent at the moment for achieving these aims although it has the potential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. We will see increasing uses of tools and techniques developed by nanotechnology to detect carcinogenic pathogens and biosensors for improved and contamination free food and agricultural products. This article will review some of the current nanotechnology research that is applicable to agriculture and food technology and project what the future will bring to the newly emerging field of Agrifood Nanotechnology.