Natural Nacre Coatings on Titanium Implant Grown by Fresh Water Bivalve Shell
Titanium dental implant screws were implanted into the pearl sacs of a fresh water bivalve (hyriopsis cumingii Lea) by replacing the pearls. After 45 days of cultivation, the implant surfaces were deposited with a nacre coating with iridescent luster. The coating was about 200-600 µm in thickness and composed of a laminated nacreous layer and a transitional non-laminated layer that consisted mainly of vaterite and calcite polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The transitional layer was around 2-10 µm thick in the convex and flat region of the implant surface and could form close contact with titanium surface; while the transitional layer was much thicker in the steep concave regions and could not form close contact with the titanium surface. The improvement to the design of the dental implant with respect to this coating method was suggested in the paper. The results suggest that it is possible to fabricate a biologically active and degradable, and mechanically tough and strong nacre coating on titanium dental implant by this novel coating technology.
Takashi Nakamura, Kimihiro Yamashita and Masashi Neo
X. X. Wang et al., "Natural Nacre Coatings on Titanium Implant Grown by Fresh Water Bivalve Shell ", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 309-311, pp. 743-746, 2006