Damage evolution due to generation of hot spots on railway brake disc was investigated using the infrared thermography method. A brake disc with gray cast iron, which is currently used in Korea, was employed for this investigation. A high-speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature of brake disc as well as for in-situ monitoring of hot spot evolution. From the thermographic images, the observed hot spots and thermal damage of railway brake disc during braking operation were qualitatively analyzed. Moreover, in this investigation, the previous experimental and theoretical studies on hot spots phenomenon were reviewed, and the current experimental results were introduced and compared with theoretical prediction.