Heat Resistant Ni-Cr-Fe Steels for Superplastic Forming Dies: From Material Microstructure to Die Design
During superplastic forming, dies are subjected to high temperatures and severe environmental conditions. Optimum material grade choice and die design have to take into account all these combined parameters. Microstructure evolution and high temperature mechanical properties are investigated and reported for various Heat Resistant Cast Steels. New die concepts are suggested for energy and cost savings.
Daniel G. Sanders
G. Bernhart et al., "Heat Resistant Ni-Cr-Fe Steels for Superplastic Forming Dies: From Material Microstructure to Die Design", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 433, pp. 77-84, 2010