ZnO-Pr6O11-Co3O4-TiO2-Based Ceramic Varistor Materials
The preparation and characterization of ZnO-Pr6O11-Co3O4-TiO2 (ZPCT) based varistor materials with different doping levels of TiO2 and Pr6O11 were investigated. The results reveal that: (1) TiO2 is an important additive, acting as an inhibitor of ZnO grain growth. The doping of appropriate amount of TiO2 can significantly improve the nonlinear properties and decreases the leakage current of the varistors, achieving a relatively high nonlinear exponent and low leakage current with 1.0 mol% TiO2 doped. (2) The oxide of Pr6O11 microstructurally plays the role of inhibition in grain growth. The doping of appropriate amount of Pr6O11 can improve the nonlinear property, and decrease the leakage currents of the varistors, acquiring the optimum results with 1.5 mol% Pr6O11 doped.
Wei Pan and Jianghong Gong
H. Feng et al., "ZnO-Pr6O11-Co3O4-TiO2-Based Ceramic Varistor Materials", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 434-435, pp. 389-392, 2010