Direct electrolysis of Ti and its alloys has been attempted by the process using a DC-ESR unit. The concept of the process is explained in detail, and the expected key issues are commented. Liquid Ti metal was obtained in a CaF2-CaO-TiO2 bath, and electrolysis by using a new type of the electrolytic cell was also tried. Ti-Al alloy was successfully deposited in a CaF2-CaO-TiO2-Al2O3 bath, whereas Ti-Si alloy was not obtained in a CaF2-CaO-TiO2-SiO2 bath yet. Ti-Fe alloy was extracted in CaF2-CaO-TiO2-FeO bath of a particular composition. A common correlation between the cathodic current efficiency and the average consumed electric power seen in the Ti, Ti-Al and Ti-Fe electrolysis suggested the importance of sufficient temperature in the process. The bath composition also affected the temperature through the change in the electric conductivity of the bath.