Panel layout in control room of nuclear power plant requires satisfying layout principles and requirement for multiple operational conditions. Traditional panel layout methods are difficult to integrate these principles; the layout scheme heavily depends on designers’ individual judgments and experience. So the randomness of layout scheme is hard to overcome. Particle swarm optimization is a global efficient solution to complex optimization problems with multi-constraints. First, the operational efficiency is selected as optimization object. Second, objective function is constructed according to the evaluating indexes which include operation frequency, sequence and importance of components. Third, Particle swarm algorithm was used to optimize the layout scheme. A case study of layout optimization design is conducted to illustrate the proposed method.