A study of the fracture phenomenon of zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics was carried. It analyzes the mechanisms of crack propagation of ZTA ceramics, and constructs fracture experiments of ZTA ceramics, so the propagation behavior on fracture in ZTA ceramics was investigated according to the experiment. By contrast, intercrystalline fracture happed in V-shaped groove of ceramic specimen under normal load without ultrasonic vibration during ceramic fracture, and transcrystalline fracture happed in V-shaped groove of ceramic specimen under normal load with ultrasonic vibration during ceramic fracture. Furthermore, the loading force of ceramic specimen under normal load with ultrasonic vibration is smaller than that under normal load without ultrasonic vibration all other conditions being equal. The results of fracture experiment prove that ultrasonic vibration assisted is good for the fracture of ceramic specimen, and it also proves that ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding may raise the working efficiency and improve surface integrity of ceramics from the standpoint of the fracture.