Particulate composites with crosslinked polymer matrix and solid fillers are one of important classes of materials such as construction materials, high-performance engineering materials, sealants, protective organic coatings, dental materials, or solid explosives. The main focus of a present paper is an estimation of the macroscopic Young’s modulus and stress-strain behavior of a particulate composite with polymer matrix. The particulate composite with a crosslinked polymer matrix in a rubbery state filled by an alumina-based mineral filler is investigated by means of the finite element method. A hyperelastic material behavior of the matrix was modeled by the Mooney-Rivlin material model. Numerical models on the base of unit cell were developed. The numerical results obtained were compared with experimental stress-strain curve and value of initial Young’s modulus. The paper can contribute to a better understanding of the behavior and failure of particulate composites with a crosslinked polymer matrix.