Consideration of Elastic Tool Deformation in Numerical Simulation of Hydroforming with Granular Material Used as a Medium
The use of high and ultra high strength steels in modern bodies in white raises steadily since the 1980’s. This trend is caused by the consumers’ wish of low fuel consuming cars with an increased passenger’s safety. The processing of these steels brings new challenges e.g. high flow stresses and a low formability at room temperature or high tool loads. These challenges can be resolved by warm forming at temperatures up to 600 °C reducing the flow stresses and increasing formability. For the production of complex parts that can not be produced by deep drawing hydroforming is an appropriate technology which can also help to reduce the number of parts and thus the weight of the body in white. Nowadays typical fluids used for hydroforming are only temperature stable up to about 330 °C so that it is not possible to combine the benefits of warm forming and hydroforming. Media like gases and fluids tend to leakage during the process which can only be avoided by a sealing or high blank holder forces. A new approach is the use of ceramic beads as medium for hydroforming at elevated temperatures. Building up a heatable tool for hydroforming with granular material used as medium makes it necessary to consider thermal conductivity so that there is a need of thick insulation plates. These insulation plates show high elastic deformations affecting the blank holder forces during the forming process. Measurements of the compressibility of these plates and implementation in numerical simulation allow a significant increase of the prediction accuracy of the model. A comparison of real part geometry and numerical results from models with and without consideration of elastic deformation will be given.
J.R. Duflou, R. Clarke, M. Merklein, F. Micari, B. Shirvani and K. Kellens
M. Grüner and M. Merklein, "Consideration of Elastic Tool Deformation in Numerical Simulation of Hydroforming with Granular Material Used as a Medium", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 473, pp. 707-714, 2011