Effect of Strain Rate on Metal Flow Pattern in T-Section Extrusion Process
Extrusion is a deformation process used in metal sections fabrication. Metal flow pattern during extrusion process is of great importance. How circular initial section of billet changes to final section provides more details of extrusion process, and plays an important role in optimizing the extrusion energy. Extrusion in flat-faced die, without intermediate section, needs much more energy than is required for die having intermediate section. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strain rate on metal flow pattern in T-section extrusion process. Four different ram speeds were applied to realize how the shape and position of intermediate section would be affected. Flat-faced die with “T” final section was designed and manufactured. Straight layout of metal was of top concern in die design. Commercial purity aluminum, Al 99.5, was extruded in flat-faced die in hot condition. Graphite was used as lubricant in deformation process. After partial extrusion of billets, the residual part of billets pounced out of container and then mounted for metallographic tests. This part of billets consisted of dead-metal zone and deformation zone. Then, step-by-step decreasing of specimen height followed by macro-etching of metal surface paved the way for determining the metal flow pattern. An egg-shaped intermediate section appeared between initial round section and final “T” section. The size and position of the intermediate section changed by varying the strain rate of extrusion process; It was also revealed that as the strain rate of extrusion process is increased, the dead-metal zones become narrower and the dead-metal zone semi angle increases.
Luca Tomesani and Lorenzo Donati
P. Homayoun and M. Ketabchi, "Effect of Strain Rate on Metal Flow Pattern in T-Section Extrusion Process", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 491, pp. 241-247, 2012