Whisker Growth from Tin Coatings
Conditions favouring spontaneous growth of whiskers from tin coatings are discussed. Observations are reported concerning orientations and geometry of whiskers. The driving force for growth arises from elastic stress in the coating and can be expressed as a Gibbs free energy in terms of the decrease in pressure. An analysis of diffusion-controlled growth based on grain boundary diffusion seems to be capable of accounting for the fast growth kinetics that are observed in practice at room temperature.
B. Bacroix, J.H. Driver, R. Le Gall, Cl. Maurice, R. Penelle, H. Réglé and L. Tabourot
W. B. Hutchinson et al., "Whisker Growth from Tin Coatings", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 467-470, pp. 465-470, 2004