The Aging Behavior for Low Carbon Bainitic Steel Bearing Cu-Nb
By the aid of optical microscope, Hardness measurement, SEM, TEM and the chemical quantitative phase analysis technique, the influence of copper, niobium, and chromium on the aging hardness has been investigated. The aging precipitation behavior and the interaction between various precipitates have also been discussed. The results indicate that since there are multi aging-hardening elements in the steel the aging hardening behaviors are complicated. During the aging the ε－copper， and carbides containing iron and chromium will precipitate. Also, new niobium carbonitride precipitation occurs. These precipitation processes cause marked hardening effect and various hardness peaks. The ε－copper can precipitate at dislocation and lath boundaries preferentially. During the aging the bainite lath united and became wider and then gradually vanished.
Z.Y. Zhong, H. Saka, T.H. Kim, E.A. Holm, Y.F. Han and X.S. Xie
X. M. Wang et al., "The Aging Behavior for Low Carbon Bainitic Steel Bearing Cu-Nb", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 475-479, pp. 129-132, 2005