In this paper, the circulation rolling plastic deformation(CRPD) surface nanocrystallization technology is proposed based on the idea that the severe plastic deformation can induce grain refinement. The equipment of CRPD is designed and manufactured. A nanocrystallization surface layer was successfully obtained in a column sample of low carbon steel. The average grain size in the top surface layer is about 18 nm, and gradually increases with the distance from the surface. The hardness increases gradually from about 200HV0.1 in the matrix to about 600HV0.1 in the surface layer.