Weldability Approach to Duplex Stainless Steels Using Multicomponent Phase Diagrams
Welding is a non-equilibrium process. However, some weldability issues, as the extension of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) can be addressed using equilibrium phase diagrams. The 70 wt% Fe-Cr-Ni pseudo-binary phase diagram is commonly used to establish the phase transformations during welding of duplex stainless steels. The predicted results are assumed to be reasonably good for most of the duplex stainless steels. Thermodynamic calculations were used to determine multicomponent phase diagrams and volumetric fraction of phases present as a function of temperature several commercial duplex stainless steels. Results showed that simplified pseudobinary phase diagram approach is valid to estimate welded joint microstructures only for the low alloy duplex stainless steels as UNS S32304, but phase transformations and mainly solidification paths of high alloy duplex stainless steels should predicted only using a multi-component phase diagram.
Z.Y. Zhong, H. Saka, T.H. Kim, E.A. Holm, Y.F. Han and X.S. Xie
A. J. Ramirez and S. D. Brandi, "Weldability Approach to Duplex Stainless Steels Using Multicomponent Phase Diagrams", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 475-479, pp. 2765-2768, 2005