Light Alloy Castings for Automotive Applications: The Case of Al vs. Mg

Abstract:

Article Preview

The economical and environmental effects of mass reduction through Al and Mg primary alloys substitutions for cast iron and steel in automotive components are discussed using M.F. Ashby’s penalty functions method. The viability of Mg alloy substitutions for existing Al alloy cast components is also considered. The cost analysis shows that direct, equal-volume, Al alloy substitutions for cast iron and steel are the most feasible in terms of the CAFE liability, followed by substitutions involving flat panels of prescribed stiffness. When the creation of CO2 associated to the production of Al and Mg is considered, the potential gasoline savings over the lifespan of the car compensate for the intrinsic environmental burden of Al in all applications, while electrolytic Mg substitutions for cast iron and steel are feasible for equal volume and panels only. Magnesium produced by the Pidgeon thermal process appears to be too primary energy intensive to be competitive in structural applications. Magnesium substitutions for existing Al alloy beams and panels are generally unviable. The current higher recycling efficiency of Al casting alloys confers Al a significant advantage over Mg alloys.

Info:

Periodical:

Materials Science Forum (Volumes 519-521)

Edited by:

W.J. Poole, M.A. Wells and D.J. Lloyd

Pages:

1801-1808

DOI:

10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.519-521.1801

Citation:

C. H. Cáceres "Light Alloy Castings for Automotive Applications: The Case of Al vs. Mg", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 519-521, pp. 1801-1808, 2006

Online since:

July 2006

Export:

Price:

$35.00

[1] K. Johnson, Advanced Materials and Processes 160, (2002) 62.

[2] U.S. Congress, 1975, http: /www. ita. doc. gov/td/auto/cafe. html; Accessed on: October 20, (2005).

[3] Life cycle inventory of the worldwide aluminium industry with regard to energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. Part 1 - automotive; International Aluminium Institute, http: /www. world-aluminum. org/iai/publications/, (2000).

[4] M.P. Thomas and A.H. Wirtz, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 10, (1994) 193.

[5] G. Hoyle, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 15, (1995) 181.

[6] P. Koltun, A. Tharumarajah, and S. Ramakrishnan, In: N.R. Neelameggham, H.I. Kaplan and B.R. Powell (Ed. ) Magnesium Technology 2005, San Francisco, CA; TMS (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society), Warrendale, 2005, 43.

[7] S. Ramakrishnan and P. Koltun, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 42, (2004) 49.

[8] M.F. Ashby, Acta Mater. 48, (2000) 359.

[9] M.F. Ashby, Materials selection in mechanical design (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2005).

[10] P.M. Weaver, M.F. Ashby, S. Burgess, and N. Shibaike, Materials & Design 17, (1996) 11.

[11] W.S. Miller, L. Zhuang, J. Bottema, A.J. Wittebrood, P. De Smet, A. Haszler, and A. Vieregge, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 280, (2000) 37.

[12] Granta Design Ltd., CES Selector, 2005, http: /www. grantadesign. com.

[13] American Metal Market Daily, 2005, www. amm. com; Accessed on: June 14, (2005).

[14] D.A. Kramer, U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, http: /minerals. usgs. gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/magnesium/mgmis1q05. xls; Accessed on: June 23, (2005).

[15] L. Holloway, Mater. Design 19, (1998) 133.

[16] U.G.K. Wegst and M.F. Ashby, In: (Ed. ) The 3rd Bienal World Conf. on Integrated Design and Process Technnology (IDTP), Berlin, Germany; 1998, 88.

[17] C. Hunt, Australian Journal of Environmental Management, 2004, http: /colinhunt. zenburger. com/australiangreenhouse. html; Accessed on: June 28, (2005).

[18] C. Bae and N. Trumbul, Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2005, http: /courses. washington. edu/gmforum/topics/trans_climate/trans_climate. htm; Accessed on: June 15, (2005).

[19] P.A. Plunkert, U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, http: /www. usgs. gov/pubprod; Accessed on: October 20, (2005).

[20] D.A. Kramer, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004, http: /pubs. usgs. gov/circ/2004/1196am/; Accessed on: October 20, (2005).

[21] ODNR, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 2005, http: /www. dnr. state. oh. us/recycling/awareness/facts/aluminum. htm; Accessed on: October 24, (2005).

[22] S.F. Sibley and W.C. Butterman, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 15, (1995) 259.

[23] S. Valtierra, Personal communication; svaltier@nemak. com, Nemak Pty., Monterrey, Mexico; (2005).

[24] G. Hanko and G. Macher, In: H.I. Kaplan (Ed. ) Magnesium Technology 2003, San Diego; TMS (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society), Warrendale, 2003, 29.

[25] K. Buxmann, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 10, (1994) 17.

In order to see related information, you need to Login.