Friction stir processing (FSP) has been employed for localized modification and control of microstructures in NiAl bronze materials, which are widely utilized for marine components. The thermomechanical cycle of FSP results in homogenization and refinement and the conversion of microstructures from a cast to a wrought condition within stir zones in the material. However, the direct measurement of stir zone temperatures, strains, strain rates and cooling rates is difficult due to steep gradients and transients in these quantities, and this is an impediment in the assessment of FSP-induced microstructures and properties. Quantitative microstructure analyses following FSP of cast NiAl bronze materials have been used to develop estimates of stir zone thermomechanical cycles. The estimation procedures will be reviewed and the microstructure-based estimates will be compared to results from computational models and embedded thermocouples measurements. Stir zone microstructures comprise a mixture of primary α grains and transformation products of the β that formed during processing. Recrystallization in the primary α occurred due to particle-stimulated nucleation in this low stacking fault energy material. Factors that influence the distribution of strength and ductility in the stir zone appear to include the mixture of microstructure constituents and gradients in microstructure due to gradients in processing conditions.