The Processing of Ultrafine-Grained Materials Using High-Pressure Torsion
It is now well-established that processing through the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD) leads to a significant reduction in the grain size of a wide range of metallic materials. This paper examines the fabrication of ultrafine-grained materials using high-pressure torsion (HPT) where this process is attractive because it leads to exceptional grain refinement with grain sizes that often lie in the nanometer or submicrometer ranges. Two aspects of HPT are examined. First, processing by HPT is usually confined to samples in the form of very thin disks but recent experiments demonstrate the potential for extending HPT also to bulk samples. Second, since the strains imposed in HPT vary with the distance from the center of the disk, it is important to examine the development of inhomogeneities in disk samples processed by HPT.
S.-J.L. Kang, M.Y. Huh, N.M. Hwang, H. Homma, K. Ushioda and Y. Ikuhara
C. Xu et al., "The Processing of Ultrafine-Grained Materials Using High-Pressure Torsion", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 558-559, pp. 1283-1294, 2007