The finite element model of coupling the thermal field with structural analysis is proposed in order to analyze the thermo-stress of casting ladle structure. The thermal fields of casting ladle with refractory lining structure are computed according to the thermal properties of materials and boundary conditions. Numerical simulation shows that that computed outer temperatures of casting ladle agree with measured ones. The thermo-stress of casting ladle structure is simulated by taking thermal loadings as the loading conditions of the steel shell structure. Material behaviors were described by the Drucker–Prager plasticity model and Von Mises yield criterion. Calculation results of thermo-stress fields shows the outer shell structure is safety under the action of thermal loadings.