Hybrid Friction Stir Welding of Carbon Steel
A new welding technique called hybrid FSW was developed to decrease the tool load and the defects during the FSW of high melting point materials. This method consists of FSW and a laser for preheating ahead of the tool. The hybrid FSW enables the proper welding conditions to be significantly expanded, and the joint characteristics are similar to those obtained by the normal FSW at the same welding speeds.
Changhee Lee, Jong-Bong Lee, Dong-Hwan Park and Suck-Joo Na
H. Fujii et al., "Hybrid Friction Stir Welding of Carbon Steel", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 580-582, pp. 393-396, 2008