Understanding of Laser and Hybrid Welding Phenomena
This paper describes laser and hybrid welding phenomena for the production of a sound and deep weld. The penetration of laser weld beads depended upon the power and power density at low and high welding speeds, respectively. It was reveled that the weld fusion zone geometry was formed by keyhole behavior and melt flows. It was also understood that the production of sound welds without porosity was attributed to no bubble formation in TIG-YAG hybrid welding of stainless steel and the disappearance of bubbles from the molten pool surface in YAG-MIG hybrid welding of aluminum alloy.
Changhee Lee, Jong-Bong Lee, Dong-Hwan Park and Suck-Joo Na
S. Katayama et al., "Understanding of Laser and Hybrid Welding Phenomena", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 580-582, pp. 535-538, 2008