Monotonic Strength Properties of Siberian Yellow Pine
Strength values of the sapwood of Siberian yellow pine were measured in a system with orthogonal coordinates along the axial, radial, and tangential directions of the cell structure. Highest strength was the axial normal strength and lowest the tangential normal strength. The difference between these two values was 87-fold. Shear strength values remained between the two normal strength values. The highest shear strength appeared in tangential direction across the reinforcing fibers, i.e., on the plane perpendicular to the axial direction. Lowest shear strength appeared in tangential direction on the plane perpendicular to radial direction. The variations are due to orientation of cells and of fiber reinforcement in the cell wall laminas, especially in the middle layer of the secondary cell wall.
Pentti O. Kettunen
P. O. Kettunen et al., "Monotonic Strength Properties of Siberian Yellow Pine", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 599, pp. 137-142, 2009